About Fungal Pharmacology

The Department of Pharmacy of the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen (Radboudumc), the Netherlands, has a long and established focus on clinical pharmacological research in the field of anti-infective agents, specifically antifungal, antiviral, antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs.
The Radboudumc itself is considered one of the top academic centers on research and healthcare in the Netherlands.

Comprising a broad spectrum of antifungal research – from in vitro work to international therapeutic drug monitoring proficiency programs – we are dedicated in personalizing patient treatment. The clinical pharmacological oriented research is firmly associated with the daily practice of pharmacology-related patient care. Combining knowledge and capacity in laboratory, clinical and toxicological aspects, we support professionals in academics and health care service.

The Fungal Pharmacology interaction website has been developed in 2013 and is based at the Department of Pharmacy of the Radboud University Medical Center. Within this division lies the responsibility to maintain the updates and monitor the site content.

Editorial board

Together with the initiation of the website, an Editorial board was established to further enhance the constant quality of the Fungal Pharmacology interaction website by providing it with advice on oversight and direction. This editorial board is comprised of experts in the clinical, microbiological and pharmacological field in the use of antifungal drugs.


Oscar Marchetti

Oscar Marchetti is board-certified specialist in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He is Associate Professor at the Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and at the Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Oscar Marchetti is affiliated with several scientific associations: Fungal Infection Network of Switzerland (FUNGINOS), Infectious Diseases Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC-IDG), European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL), a joint project of the EORTC, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), European Leukemia Net (ELN), and International Immunocompromised Host Society (ICHS).
His main research interests include the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of fungal and bacterial infections in cancer, immuno-compromised and critically ill patients, as well as the pharmacokinetics/-dynamics and therapeutic drug monitoring of antifungal and antibacterial agents. He is principal investigator or co-investigator in multicenter studies of the FUNGINOS and of the EORTC-IDG.
He leaded or contributed to the development of European ECIL-guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of bacterial and fungal infections in cancer patients and of FUNGINOS-guidelines for the management of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis.
Oscar Marchetti has been invited as speaker at national and international conferences, and has authored a number of peer-reviewed articles, reviews, and abstracts at scientific meetings.
He is peer-reviewer for scientific medical journals in the fields of infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, hemato-oncology, intensive care, internal medicine, and paediatrics as well as for national and international scientific societies and organizations.
Oscar Marchetti received awards or distinctions from academic, educational and scientific institutions and societies.

Johan Maertens

Johan Maertens is currently Associate Professor of Hematology at the University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg Leuven, Belgium.

He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the Immunocompromised Host Society, the International Society of Human and Animal Mycology, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, the American Society of Hematology, the European Haematology Association, and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantations. He is a past chair of the Infectious Diseases group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and an active member of the European Conference of Infections in Leukemia (ECIL).

His major professional interests are fungal infections in patients with hematological disorders, development of new management approaches to invasive aspergillosis, non-invasive diagnosis of fungal infections and non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Dr Maertens has published over 100 articles and book chapters on antifungal management and diagnosis in several prestigious journals and is a co-editor of the book 'Diagnosis of Fungal Infections'. He has seerved as a member of numerous national and international advisory boards.

Adilia Warris

Adilia Warris is a clinical reader at the University of Aberdeen and an expert in paediatric infectious diseases with a specific interest in medical mycology. She is a Principal Investigator of the Aberdeen Fungal Group and also holds an Honorary Consultant position in Paediatric Infectious Diseases at the Royal Aberdeen Children’s Hospital.
Specific areas of interest are the host-fungus interaction in specific patient groups with an emphasis on Aspergillus species, the unique interaction of A. nidulans and the CGD host, Aspergillus infections in the CF host, the development of new management strategies for invasive fungal infections in children, and the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in children. The Dutch Pediatric Mycology Network was established by her and is a unique collaboration involving all the 8 university medical centers to improve the knowledge of pediatric invasive mycoses. She is a member of the research advisory panel of the CGD society in the UK, of the ESPID Research Master Class committee, and of the steering committee of the Scottish Paediatric & Adolescent Infection & Immunology Network (SPAIIN). She is the coordinator of the ESCMID-ESFIG working group developing the management guideline of Invasive Aspergillosis in Children and is an author of the ECIL-4 Guidelines for Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Paediatric Patients with Cancer or Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. She is a member of the editorial board of the Medical Mycology Case Reports journal. She has published over 100 peer-reviewed papers and contributed to several book chapters both nationally and internationally.


Peter Donnelly

Dr Peter Donnelly is Coordinator of Studies in Supportive Care of the Department of Haematology and is a member of the Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
He is Chair of the Infectious Disease Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), General Secretary to the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM), chair of the ISHAM Working Group – European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI), and a member of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Infectious Diseases Working Party. He is also a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathology.
Dr Donnelly graduated with a Bachelor of Science at the University of Glasgow in 1974, earning his PhD on the topic of ‘Viridans streptococci and allogeneic bone marrow transplant’ in 1993. After working in Microbiology Technician posts at Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, UK, and as Senior Scientific Officer at Hammersmith Hospital, London, he moved to the Medical Microbiology department of the University Hospital Nijmegen in 1987 and finally became a staff member of the Department of Haematology.
His current research interests are the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of invasive fungal diseases, mucosal barrier injury, and infection and infectious complications of the neutropenic patient. Dr Donnelly is author of over 200 research papers and reviews and 15 book chapters. He is also Senior Editor of the Journal Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and regular reviewer for top peer-reviewed journals including the Lancet and Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Paul Verweij

Paul Verweij is professor of medical microbiology and consultant microbiologist at the Department of Medical Microbiology at Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. He is director of the National Mycology Reference Laboratory that coordinates National surveillance studies. He is also chairman of the Dutch Society for Medical Mycology and member of the executive committee of the Infectious Diseases Group of the EORTC.
Paul’s research interests include diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, resistance in molds, and (pre)clinical studies of new antifungal agents. He recently has published on resistance to medical triazoles in the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the possible link with use of azole fungicides for crop protection and material preservation. 


Roger Brüggemann

Roger JM Brüggemann, PharmD, PhD (1973) holds a position at the Department of Clinical Pharmacy at the Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands (2007- ).

In the past years Roger has been responsible for the translational pharmacological research on anti-infectives, specifically antifungal drugs. His work involves three domains ranging from in vitro and animal research to trials in humans with strong national and international collaborations. Roger’s research involves the resolution of PK and PD behaviour and factors that impact this. A major focus has been on the application of TDM in specific cohorts of patients. He has experience in the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of single and multi-centre trials involving azole and echinocandin drugs in a wide variety of patients such as (pediatric) hematology and intensive care unit patients and healthy volunteers trials. He received the price for best thesis of the Dutch Association of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics (2011) and the Young Investigator Award from the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology (2013).

Roger is a member of a number of national and international societies including the “European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID)”; the ESCMID PK/PD Study Group and the ESCMID Fungal Infections Study Group; the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology (IATDMCT)  and the “Anti-infective Committee of the IATDMCT”; the International Society of Anti-infective Pharmacology (ISAP) ; the Dutch Society for Hospital Pharmacist (NVZA) and the Special Interest Group for Infectious Diseases of the NVZA. Furthermore Roger is actively involved in the writing of international guidelines on the management of invasive fungal infections (ECIL and ESCMID) and the organisation of international courses on PK-PD of antifungal drugs.
In addition to his research, Roger works as a resident hospital pharmacist, is a consultant for the department of hematology, the intensive care and is a member of the regional Toxicology Expert Team.

William Hope

William Hope (BMBS, FRACP, FRCPA, PhD), is currently an NIHR Clinician Scientist and Professor of Therapeutics and Infectious Diseases at The University of Liverpool in the United Kingdom.

Professor Hope is a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians and a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. William Hope qualified in Medicine in 1991 before undertaking specialist training in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology.  He completed his PhD in antimicrobial pharmacology in 2006, while undertaking fellowships at The University of Manchester, UK and the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.  He was awarded a Chair in Therapeutics and Infectious Diseases in 2011 at The University of Manchester.  He has recently been appointed to a Chair in the Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Liverpool.

Dr. Hope's areas of special interest and research are antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, mathematical modelling of antimicrobial agents, population pharmacokinetics, and individualisation of antimicrobial therapy. Dr Hope is Scientific Advisor to the ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFSIG), Secretary of the EUCAST Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Sub-Committee and recently appointed to the ICAAC Program Committee for Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and General Pharmacology.

Russel Lewis

Russell Lewis received his doctorate of pharmacy at the University of Kansas followed by clinical residency training at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University Medical Center in St. Louis. He then pursued infectious disease research fellowship focused in antifungal pharmacology in the Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Iowa in Iowa City. From 1999-2011 he was a faculty at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy, and a clinical pharmacist and adjunct faculty member in the Department of Infectious Diseases at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas

In 2011, Dr. Lewis moved to Bologna, Italy and was appointed as an Associate Professor in Infectious Diseases in the Department of Medical Sciences and Surgery at the University of Bologna. He also serves as a clinical pharmacologist for the Infectious Diseases Unit at S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital in Bologna.

Dr. Lewis has authored or co-authored over 200 papers and book chapters on the topics of antifungal pharmacology and infections in neutropenic cancer patients. He serves on the editorial board of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and is a Deputy editor for Mycoses. His research focuses on the pharmacology and immunological activity of antifungal agents. More recently, his work has shifted to the development of clinical risk models to support diagnostic and treatment decisions for invasive fungal diseases and multidrug resistant bacteria.

David Back

David Back is a Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Liverpool and has worked in the area of Pharmacokinetics and drug –drug interactions for more than 35 years. He established the Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Group (LHPG) in 1987 and subsequently the Liverpool group has been at the forefront of pharmacological research of anti-infective drugs, specifically for HIV and HCV.  Currently there are numerous ongoing pharmacokinetic, pharmacogenetic and molecular-based studies involving local, national and international collaborations.  David has authored ~400 publications. He is a former Editor in chief of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and is on the Editorial Board of numerous journals. He has established several key resources for health care professionals including www.hiv-druginteractions.org and www.hep-druginteractions.org.  In 2007 he was awarded the Lilly Prize from the British Pharmacological Society for outstanding contribution to Clinical Pharmacology.

Jan-Willem Alffenaar

Dr Jan-Willem C Alffenaar started his career in 2002 as pharmacist at the department of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology of the University Medical Center Groningen in the Netherlands. From 2005-2008h he served as a hospital pharmacist in residence at the same hospital. During his routine TDM training he developed great interest into infectious diseases in critically ill patients. This resulted in a thesis titled “The pharmacokinetics and TDM of antimicrobial agents, in particular antifungal agents and anti-TB drugs in critically ill patients”. He finished his thesis in 2009 and has been Principle Investigator of many clinical studies evaluating clinical pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs. In 2012 he finished his training in clinical pharmacology and became member of the Ethical Review Board of the University Medical Center Groningen. Dried blood spot analysis got his specific attention as it enables TDM in resource limited settings. Recently he was appointed as associate professor at the Medical Faculty of the University of Groningen with the scope of optimizing antimicrobial therapy based on PK/PD principles. He authored or co-authored over 60 papers in international peer reviewed journals. At this moment he is supervising 14 PhD and PharmD-PhD students.

Fungal Pharmacology Management

Vincent Lempers

Vincent J.C. Lempers (1985) currently holds a position at the Department of Pharmacy at the Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (2012 – current).
He obtained his MSc degree in pharmacy and a PharmD degree at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. He is currently a PhD candidate at the Radboud University Medical Center on the topic of clinical pharmacology of antifungal drugs and the individualization of antifungal therapy.
Vincent’s research interests are in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antifungal drugs in specific patient groups, drug-drug interactions of antifungal drugs and their clinical implication. In addition to his research, Vincent is involved in routine patient TDM management.
Vincent is a member of the ‘European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infecious Diseases (ESCMID)’.

Roeland Wasmann

Roeland Wasmann (1985) obtained his MSc in pharmacy and a PharmD degree in 2013 at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. After his graduation he worked for two years as a pharmacist at the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, Cell Therapy Facility of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Here, he worked in quality assurance (QA) of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs). He is currently a PhD candidate at the Department of Pharmacy at the Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (2015-curent).
Roeland is interested in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug-drug interactions of antifungal drugs in special populations. His main focus is on individualized dosing of antifungal drugs in obese patients. In addition to his researh he is involved in routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) management of antifungal therapy.

Fungal Pharmacology Support

Lisa Martial

Lisa Martial (1987) obtained her MSc degree in pharmacy and PharmD degree in 2012 from the Utrecht University, the Netherlands. After her graduation she worked during one year as a researcher at the Atonomus University of Barcelona, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics. Here she investigated the side effects of a novel formulation of medicinal cannabinoids. Currently, she is performing her PhD at the Department of Clinical Pharmacy at the Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands.
Lisa Martial is interested in pharmacokinetics (PK), the relationship between pharmacodynamics and PK especially in vulnerable patients, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) using novel techniques such as the Dried Blood Spot (DBS). Her research focuses on antifungal therapy and immunosuppressive agents used in the pediatric population. In addition to her research, she is involved in routine TDM of antifungal therapy.
Lisa is member of the 'European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID)'.

Eline Muilwijk

Eline Muilwijk (1984) holds a position at the Department of Pharmacy at the Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (2009 - current).
She obtained her MSc degree in pharmacy and a PharmD degree from Utrecht University, and has been trained as a resident hospital pharmacist at the Department of Pharmacy at the Radboud university medical center.
She is currently working as a PhD student on the topic of clinical pharmacology of antifungal agents in special patient populations.
In addition to her research, she works as a hospital pharmacist and is a consultant for the department of pediatric oncology/hematology and pediatric intensive care unit. Eline is involved in routine patient TDM management.